What to write in your first message. You are almost guaranteed to fail if you write to a woman on a dating site telling her “You are gorgeous/sexy/hot.”. Sorry to break it to you, but this kind of e · If no author or creator is provided, start the citation with the title/name of the item you are citing instead. Follow the title/name of the item with the date of publication, and Use the same format for both print books and ebooks. Use the copyright date shown on the book’s copyright page as the year of publication in the reference, even if the copyright date is For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author's name. For references to e-book editions, be sure to include the type and Cite A E-book or PDF in Harvard style. Use the following template or our Harvard Referencing Generator how to reference a ebook. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or ... read more
Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number. Title of article. URL or DOI. Caviness, L. Brain-relevant education. Salkind Ed. Sage Publications. Example 1 author : Caviness, Example 1 author : Caviness, , Focus on the brain section, para. Note: When there are no visible page numbers or paragraph numbers, you may cite the section heading and the number of the paragraph in that section to identify where your quote came from.
library up. edu Willamette Blvd. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results. Table of Contents Book In Print With One Author Book in Print More Than One Author eBook No Author Chapters, Short Stories, Essays, or Articles From a Book Anthology or Collection Article in an Online Reference Book e.
Formatting Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List. APA 7th ed. Sample Paper. Titles Capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title. Capitalize the first letter of proper names in titles, such as names of places or people. Place of Publication Do not include the publisher location in the reference. Examples: Toronto, ON ; Tokyo, Japan Electronic Books Don't include the format, platform, or device e.
Ebooks from Websites not from library databases If an ebook from a website was originally published in print, give the author, year, title, edition if given and the url. Book In Print With One Author Author's Last Name, First Initial. Example: Mulholland, K. Class, gender and the family business. Palgrave McMillan.
In-Text Paraphrase: Author's Last Name, Year Example: Mulholland, In-Text Quote: Author's Last Name, Year, p. Page Number Example: Mulholland, , p. Book in Print More Than One Author Last Name of First Author, First Initial. eBook Author's Last Name, First Initial. URL Example from Website: Rhode, D. Page Number Example: Rhode, , p. Familiar birdsongs of the Northwest. To cite Kindle or other e-book formats you must include the following information: the author, date of publication, title, e-book version, and either the Digital Object Identifier DOI number, or the place where you downloaded the book.
In Title of book or larger document chapter or section number. Engelshcall, R. In Apache HTTP Server version 1. Peckinpaugh, J. Change in the Nineties. Bough and G. DuBois Eds. Retrieved from GoldStar database. NOTE : Use a chapter or section identifier and provide a URL that links directly to the chapter section, not the home page of the website.
Cite the information as you normally would for the work you are quoting. The first example below is from a newspaper article; the second is from a scholarly journal. In brackets, write "Review of the book" and give the title of the reviewed work. Provide the web address after the words "Retrieved from," if the review is freely available to anyone. If the review comes from a subscription service or database, write "Available from" and provide the information where the review can be purchased.
Zacharek, S. Natural women [Review of the book Girls like us ]. Castle, G. New millennial Joyce [Review of the books Twenty-first Joyce, Joyce's critics: Transitions in reading and culture, and Joyce's messianism: Dante, negative existence, and the messianic self]. Modern Fiction Studies, 50 1 , Biswas, S. Dopamine D3 receptor: A neuroprotective treatment target in Parkinson's disease. AAT Often encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide bylines authors' names.
When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front of the citation. Provide publication dates if present or specify n. if no date is present in the entry. In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Jürgens, R. Point readers to raw data by providing a web address use "Retrieved from" or a general place that houses data sets on the site use "Available from".
United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. Indiana income limits [Data file]. Give the name of the researching organization followed by the date. In brackets, provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Finally, provide the project name and retrieval information. Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. Solar Spectral Data Access from the SIM, SOLSTICE, and XPS Instruments. If an interview is not retrievable in audio or print form, cite the interview only in the text not in the reference list and provide the month, day, and year in the text.
If an audio file or transcript is available online, use the following model, specifying the medium in brackets e.
Butler, C. Oral History 2 [Interview transcript]. When citing online lecture notes, be sure to provide the file format in brackets after the lecture title e. PowerPoint slides, Word document.
Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory [PDF document]. Roberts, K. Federal regulations of chemicals in the environment [PowerPoint slides].
Do not cite standard office software e. Word, Excel or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software. Hayes, B. OTSoft: Optimality Theory Software Version 2. E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you parenthetically cite them in your main text: E.
Robbins, personal communication, January 4, Include the title of the message, and the URL of the newsgroup or discussion board. Please note that titles for items in online communities e. blogs, newsgroups, forums are not italicized. If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name. Place identifiers like post or message numbers, if available, in brackets.
If available, provide the URL where the message is archived e. Frook, B. New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg 25].
Include the title of the message and the URL. J Dean. When the self emerges: Is that me in the mirror? Online videos are cited similarly to the other types of digital media described above. Yoshimoto, B. Kitchen M. Backus, Trans. Grove Atlantic. For more citation examples for different types of books e. American Psychological Association. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed.
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing. The templates for in-text citation and reference list entry of an ebook along with examples are given below for one author:.
Freeman, B. The book title should be in sentence case and italics. It is not necessary to mention the format, platform, or device of the ebook in the reference. Author Surname, F. Publication Year. Chapter title: Subtitle.
Translator, Trans. Editor Ed. Original work published year. Badiou, A. The writing of the generic. Bosteels, Trans. Toscano Eds. Original work published
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission.
Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. Note for Purdue Students: Schedule a consultation at the on-campus writing lab to get more in-depth writing help from one of our tutors. APA American Psychological Association style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences.
For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 6 th ed. Note: This page reflects APA 6, which is now out of date. It will remain online until , but will not be updated. The equivalent APA 7 page can be found here. Please note: Some electronic citations necessitate the use of brackets; APA style dictates that brackets should directly surround their content without spaces e.
When possible, include the year, month, and date in references. If the month and date are not available, use the year of publication. Please note, too, that the OWL still includes information about print sources and databases for those still working with these sources. Individual webpages and documents hosted online are cited similarly to print content. Note, however, that the URL is typically included at the end of the entry. The URL may, at the author's discretion, be left as an active link.
Include additional information like translators, editors, first edition publication date, and so on as you would for print sources. Author, A. Date of publication. Title of page [Format description when necessary]. Eco, U. How to write a thesis [PDF file]. Farina C. Original work published If the page's author is not listed, start with the title instead. If the date of publication is not listed, use the abbreviation n. Spotlight Resources. You only need to include a date of access when the page's content is likely to change over time like, for instance, if you're citing a wiki that is publicly edited.
Purdue University Writing Lab [Facebook page]. Online articles follow the same guidelines for printed articles. Include all information the online host makes available, including an issue number in parentheses. Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number issue number if available. Bernstein, M. A List Apart: For People Who Make Websites, Please note : In August of the formatting recommendations for DOIs changed.
DOIs are now rendered as an alpha-numeric string which acts as an active link. According to The APA Style Guide to Electronic References, 6 th edition , you should use the DOI format which the article appears with. So, if it is using the older numeric string, use that as the DOI.
If, however, it is presented as the newer alpha-numeric string, use that as the DOI. The Purdue OWL maintains examples of citations using both DOI styles. Because online materials can potentially change URLs, APA recommends providing a Digital Object Identifier DOI , when it is available, as opposed to the URL. DOIs are an attempt to provide stable, long-lasting links for online articles. They are unique to their documents and consist of a long alphanumeric code.
Many—but not all—publishers will provide an article's DOI on the first page of the document. Note that some online bibliographies provide an article's DOI but may "hide" the code under a button which may read "Article" or may be an abbreviation of a vendor's name like "CrossRef" or "PubMed. Find DOI's from print publications or ones that go to dead links with CrossRef. org's "DOI Resolver," which is displayed in a central location on their home page.
Title of Journal, volume number issue number if available , page range. Brownlie, D. Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography.
European Journal of Marketing, 41 , Wooldridge, M. Playing with technology: Mother-toddler interaction scores lower during play with electronic toys. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 33 5 , Online scholarly journal articles without a DOI require the URL of the journal home page. Remember that one goal of citations is to provide your readers with enough information to find the article; providing the journal home page aids readers in this process.
Title of Journal, volume number issue number if available. Kenneth, I. A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8.
Please note: APA states that including database information in citations is not necessary because databases change over time p. However, the OWL still includes information about databases for those users who need database information.
When referencing a print article obtained from an online database such as a database in the library , provide appropriate print citation information formatted just like a "normal" print citation would be for that type of work.
By providing this information, you allow people to retrieve the print version if they do not have access to the database from which you retrieved the article. You can also include the item number or accession number or database URL at the end, but the APA manual says that this is not required.
If you are citing a database article that is available in other places, such as a journal or magazine, include the homepage's URL. You may have to do a web search of the article's title, author, etc.
to find the URL. For articles that are easily located, do not provide database information. If the article is difficult to locate, then you can provide database information. Only use retrieval dates if the source could change, such as Wikis. For more about citing articles retrieved from electronic databases, see pages of the Publication Manual. Smyth, A. A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8 3 , If you only cite an abstract but the full text of the article is also available, cite the online abstract as any other online citations, adding "[Abstract]" after the article or source name.
However, if the full text is not available, you may use an abstract that is available through an abstracts database as a secondary source. Paterson, P. How well do young offenders with Asperger Syndrome cope in custody?
British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36 1 , Hendricks, J. A world apart? Bridging the gap between theory and applied social gerontology. Gerontologist, 50 3 , Abstract retrieved from Abstracts in Social Gerontology database.
Accession No. Note that the APA recommends using the homepage address for the online newspaper, rather than the full URL for the article itself. Year, Month Day. Title of Newspaper. Parker-Pope, T. Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Electronic books may include books found on personal websites, databases, or even in audio form.
Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital format or is difficult to find in print. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it.
For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author's name.
Use the same format for both print books and ebooks. Use the copyright date shown on the book’s copyright page as the year of publication in the reference, even if the copyright date is Cite A E-book or PDF in Harvard style. Use the following template or our Harvard Referencing Generator how to reference a ebook. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or · If no author or creator is provided, start the citation with the title/name of the item you are citing instead. Follow the title/name of the item with the date of publication, and What to write in your first message. You are almost guaranteed to fail if you write to a woman on a dating site telling her “You are gorgeous/sexy/hot.”. Sorry to break it to you, but this kind of e For books available in print form and electronic form, include the publish date in parentheses after the author's name. For references to e-book editions, be sure to include the type and ... read more
If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it. Hans Reitzels Forlag. DuBois Eds. However, the OWL still includes information about databases for those users who need database information. Goodreads Author. The tendency might be a sad and pretentious ending for the both of you.Read More On Our Blog. PillPack Pharmacy Simplified, how to date online e book. How To Break Bad News To Someone: Ultimate Step Guide. Anonymous If and only if an item is signed as being created by Anonymous, use "Anonymous" where you'd normally put the author's name. Learn more how customers reviews work on Amazon. How to write a thesis [PDF file]. Book In Print With One Author.